The modern russian rouble appeared in 1992, when the former USSR had been finally splitting into 15 independent states.
During a period of high inflation there were different issues of banknotes in 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1995. Beginning with
1998 a monetary reform took place, new rouble replaced old ones at 1:1000 rate. In 2001 the modified banknotes of 1997
were introduced, with improved security features. 1 rouble equals 100 kopecks.